Canning 101: Why Pumpkin Butter Can’t Be Canned


This time of year, a canner’s fancy turns to pumpkins. Tis the season for all things round, orange and squashy, after all. However, as you start searching for recipes for home canned pumpkin butter from reputable sources, you’re going to find yourself disappointed. You see, both the USDA and the National Center for Home Food Preservation are going to tell you the same thing. Don’t do it.

I’m sure there are more than a few of you out there saying to yourself, “but I’ve been making and water bath canning pumpkin butter for years!” And it’s true, many years ago, there were USDA-approved recipes for pumpkin butter. Unfortunately, the rules of canning are not a static canon and so, in 1989 the USDA changed their recommendations and the NCHFP followed suit. No home canning for pumpkin butter, not even in a pressure canner.

The reasons why homemade pumpkin butter isn’t recommended are several. When cooked down into a butter, pumpkin flesh becomes quite dense, making it difficult for the heat produced in a canner to penetrate fully through the contents of the jar. This means that even in a pressure canner, the interior of the jar may not reach the 240 degrees needed to kill those pesky botulism spores.

Additionally, pumpkin and all other winter squash are a low-acid vegetables, meaning that without careful treatment, they could potentially be a friendly environment in which botulism spores might grow into their toxic adult state. In tests, it’s been found that the pH of pumpkin has a fairly wide range, meaning that it’s not possible to offer a basic acidification ratio as there is for other borderline and low acid foods.

The good news is that pumpkin butter can be frozen and also keeps quite well in the fridge, so it doesn’t have to be entirely off the menu. I’ve also been pondering whether one could make a an apple-pumpkin butter that would be high enough in acid to be safe for canning, but would contain enough pumpkin to be sufficiently autumnal. I may do a bit of playing around, to see if I can get somewhere close to the flavor I’d like to eat.

If you’re curious to read more about the safety hazards of canning pumpkin butter and other squash purees, click here to download the PDF that was the primary source for this post.

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268 responses to “Canning 101: Why Pumpkin Butter Can’t Be Canned”

  1. I just wanted to say that I was going to can my pumpkin butter after reading several people on other sites say they’ve done it safely for years. But then I came across your site. I do NOT want to risk anyone’s lives – and especially those of my children – just to can pumpkin butter. I think I will just freeze it now! Thank you so much for your many comments addressing all of the concerns, so helpful. 🙂

  2. Hi!
    I was looking for the official government info on pumpkin canning for a friend and came here knowing you would be the one to have the link to it. You do! But sadly, the link you offer (and everyone else too! ) is dead :-(.
    Has the opinion of our great and wonderful government changed on this topic?

  3. I’m not an experienced canner but I am curious that if you can’t can pumpkin butter then how is it that I was able to purchase it in a jar unrefrigerated at my local Sprouts grocery store? Is that not the same thing just done commercially?

    • Commercial canning facilities are able to achieve higher levels of heat and pressure than can be reached at home. That’s how they’re able to preserve those varieties of pumpkin butter that you see in the grocery store.

      • Thanks for the quick response! I apologize for my ignorance on the subject (trying to educate myself) but isn’t there some way to get to a higher temperature? What temperature does commercial canning reach? Your info is very helpful!

        • There is simply a limit on how much heat and pressure a pressure canner designed for home use can achieve (the top safe temperature is 250F and you don’t want to take a until beyond 18 pounds of pressure). You need more than that to reliably penetrate to the center of a dense puree like pumpkin butter and kill off any present botulism spores. Unfortunately, there’s just no way to safely can pumpkin butter at home.

          • The pumpkin butter recipe that I have used for years (grandmas) says place all ingredients in a sauce pan .. bring to full rapid boil (240 degrees) pour into hot sterilized jars, put lid on tightly and turn upside down to seal. By the way this article reads it is not suppose to work? I haven’t killed anyone yet ??

            • Like the article says, pumpkin butter is a very dense, low acid product and so cannot be safely preserved in the home for shelf stability. Every time you make it the way that you do, you are rolling the dice. Additionally, a full rolling boil only reaches 212 degrees, not 240.

              • Canning manufactures use steam and high pressure temps to can safely. I have worked in those manufacturing companies. This is impossible to do in a home kitchen.
                Below for your education.
                -Water becomes steam when heated to a temperature of 212 degrees Fahrenheit. That temperature equates to 100 degrees Celsius or 373.15 degrees Kelvin. Steam is the gaseous state of water. It forms when water boils and is technically invisible, although a person can briefly catch glimpses of it when it mixes with cooler air and forms water droplets in the form of mist.
                Steam has many purposes, including electricity generation and soil sterilization. It also serves as a wood and concrete treatment and works in autoclaves to sterilize medical and laboratory equipment with high pressure.

  4. We can pumpkin in half-pint jars, at fifteen pounds, for about ninety minutes. Since all spoilage, including botulism, creates gases, and none of our jars have broken the seals for several years, and none of us have sickened, we are figuring that we are safe.

    Just how many of us have ancestors that have canned pumpkin/squash, ans have sickened and/or died from canning-borne poisons?

    • Certainly everyone is free to do as they wish in their own homes. Personally, the idea that no one has ever died isn’t enough of a safety net for me. Nor is the idea that no one has ever gotten sick. Often people did get sick from canning but it wasn’t diagnosed as such, simply written off as a bad stomach virus. Lastly, fruits and vegetables are different today then the heirloom ones our grandparents and generations prior preserved. They have been ‘bred’ for drought and disease resistance, to produce larger and more desireable crops. This has changed some of the acidity levels. So by all means for your immediate family do as you wish. I think it is only fair before passing these items on to others as gifts, or to consume in your home, you let them know the current recommendations so they can make their own informed decision if they want to consume it. Happy Canning!

      • My understanding is that botulism does not necessarily produce gas, and is therefore near impossible to detect. This study ( states that “gas production is an unreliable indicator of growth and toxin production by C. botulinum”. And as a farmer, I agree with Michelle above that crop characteristics have changed greatly over time due to breeding and selection. That is definitely not to say that we should not trust the wisdom of our grandparents and elders, but that it’s a good idea to check if the science backs up our assumptions. I see a lot of blogs out there with great recipes but with no explanations of their thought processes/assumptions in regard to safety – which is why I use Marissa’s blog as a resource!

    • I like Brady’s thinking. I’m also going to try using a combo of apples, pumpkin and lemon juice. I’ll let you know if I die!

  5. I am curious about doing a 50/50 ratio of pumpkin to apple butter mixture to can in pint sized or smaller jars. Has anyone done this safely? What was your experience?

  6. Why couldn’t we increase the acidity to a level that would be safe in canning by using citric acid in the puree before canning and boiling the jars. It seems to me that if the pumpkin acidity is too low, the use of Citric acid would even it out without changing the taste in a bad way. Especially since the spices in the pumpkin butter would over power the resulting tangier taste. I understand about the density of the pureed pumpkin, but there has to be a way of doing it safely at home.

  7. I want to make the pumpkin butter as a recipe stated and I want to freeze it. Bags are just a mess sometimes. Can I place in a jar and freeze after? Or if not is there another alternative to bags. Thanks for the help 🙂

  8. If you read it says, “When cooked down into a butter, pumpkin flesh becomes quite dense, making it difficult for the heat produced in a canner to penetrate fully through the contents of the jar.” I don’t know if any recipe that actually uses the flesh of a pumpkin.

    • All pumpkin butter uses the flesh, the meat, the interior of a pumpkin (or, if it’s not a pumpkin, it’s a winter squash, which has the same issues).

  9. Marisa,
    Thank you for continuing to educate people on the most up to date safety standards. It’s really important to keep current. I love passing on home preserved items to friends and family. I take it very seriously that I only offer things I know are made to the best of my knowledge to be the most up to date standards. Sure, canning can be a fun hobby but it’s also a responsibility. When you know better, you do better. I know I can always count on your website to have current information. Thank you!!

  10. I was wondering after freezing and thawing how long pumpkin butter can stay in your fridge and be used. Should i make ice cubes of it to freeze to keep it minimal.

  11. Thank you, this was very informative. I do have one question for you. I wanted to make pumpkin butter for my daughter who is away in college. I am in California and she is in Massachusetts and Mail takes approximately 2-3 days if I do express. i do not want to chance getting her sick but is there any way you know of to help it make the trip un-refrigerated? I was going to can it until I did some reading and very glad I did. Any suggestions you have would be helpful since I am very new to this.

    • There is no way to safely mail pumpkin butter to your daughter. Make her a different preserve, or buy a commercially preserved jar of pumpkin butter.

      • I was afraid you would say that! Thank you very much I just made some apple butter and she is super excited. Thanks again

      • If it were to be frozen in the ball freezer jars and sealed in a plastic zipper bag and shipped in a cooler with dry ice and shipped overnight… It is possible.

  12. Wow. I didnt know this was an issue. I bought some from a cottage business and was suprised how different it looked and tasted when i got my jar home. It was nothing like her samples. Thank you for the article.

    • With pumpkin butter, it’s not just about pH. It’s also about density. The density of the product is typically such that the heat of the canner cannot penetrate. So even if you get the pH low enough (it would need to be below 4.6), it is still not recommended that you can pumpkin butter.

  13. Hello! I’m making a batch of apple-pumpkin butter using solid-pack pumpkin from a can, NOT fresh pumpkin. Do you think it would be safe to can it in a pressure canner? Curious about whether or not it makes a difference if the pumpkin is fresh (and dangerous to can) or was in a commercial canned state before I used it in my recipe.

    • Unfortunately, the density of the pumpkin is the reason why it’s not safe for pressure canning. It doesn’t matter whether you’re using commercial or fresh pumpkin. It’s still not safe.

  14. Glad I found this! THANK YOU!

    I purchased Pumpkin Butter from a farmers’ market a couple of months ago. I stored it on a shelf and just recently got it out. Only NOW did I notice the small type on the bottom of the label that read, “refrigerate.” I wasn’t sure if it meant refrigerate after opening or refrigerate always. I’ve purchased commercial Pumpkin Butter before that was shelf stable, so I was puzzled.

    The lid on this unrefrigerated Pumpkin Butter looks adequately sealed — it doesn’t bulge and it hasn’t popped. BUT I noticed a few small bubbles in the pumpkin butter inside the jar. Those had me worried.

    I’m afraid it could be contaminated with botulism. Is there any way to know?

    Also, should I contact the farmer about it?

    Good to know that pumpkin butter can’t safely be home-canned! Thank you!

    • There is no test to determine whether something has botulism or not. That’s why it’s so dangerous.

      I don’t know whether the refrigerate label meant refrigerate all long, or after it was opened. You might reach out to the farmer to be sure.

  15. […] freeze it for longer-term storage. Canning pumpkin butter is actually not recommended – click here to read someone else’s well-written post with an explanation about why not. (Please note that this is an edit of the original post after one of my kind readers informed me […]

  16. Already made and canned my pumpkin butter before reading all about the hazards. Does anyone know if it’s safe to freeze and use? I canned last night and left it on the counter over night. I now put it in the freezer but would rather be safe than sorry! Thanks!

  17. I just read that it is not safe to can pumpkin or any type squash because of low acidity, and not safe any way you can do it. Well I have bought squash relish at festivals that was home canned. So, is it not safe? After reading the arrival I tend to think not, but you are the one who knows more about that than I do. Thanks because I have had food poisoning, although I got mine from a restaurant, I thought I would die it can be very painful, and make you very sick. Thank You for awareness.

  18. Thank you for your wonderful and diligent effort to educate us home canners. I certainly will NOT can pumpkin butter. I was going to make some today. I realize that the best way is to make what we’ll eat over the short term to be kept in the fridge and then freeze the pumpkin puree that I make. I can always use the puree to make pies or butter depending on what the family wants at the time. For interest I use the Halloween pumpkin varieties to make pumpkin puree. It has a lot of water in it, so after baking the fresh pumpkin in the oven, I let it sit and scoop the water off and then freeze in baggies. I make pies for haying crews, and the best pies (the guys tell me) are the pumpkin made with 150 proof rum or Captain Morgan’s Spiced rum (2 T./pie). I also use the spiced rum to lightly wash over banana bread after it comes out of the oven. Makes the crust delightfully moist and everyone loves it. I use very good bourbon in anything chocolate, apricot brandy in peach pies, Cointreau in apple/cranberry pies, and make a fantastic sweet hard cider apple pie. Port in pumpkin butter is fantastic and also in elderberry jelly. We don’t drink alcohol in our family but I definitely cook with liquor and use the best brands. Oh, yes, the maple whiskey is also great for a wash on banana/cranberry bread. The liquor isn’t obvious in anything I bake, but it brings our the flavors wonderfully. Happy pumpkin cooking to everyone this Halloween!

  19. Just wondereing how long could I keep the canned pumpkin butter in the refrigerator after I have made it from scratch using a whole baking pumpkin and canned with a hot bath to seal the lid?

    • You really don’t want to seal pumpkin butter in a boiling water bath canner. Even if you’re keeping it in the fridge, you’re creating favorable conditions for botulism.

  20. The recipe i am using for my pumpkin butter has apple juice in it. Would that make it safe to can in a pressure cooker ?

  21. Wow. Glad I found this. I bought a small jar of pumpkin butter 3 months ago at a small farm stand craft shop made by a local person while on vacation. I forgot to try it.. so I was looking to see if it was still ediable… and now I find out it NEVER was! Now I dont know if I trust any home canned foods. I have no idea how well anyone has pre pared the food. If I dont know who did it.

  22. Ive canned pumpkin butter in the past, using pressure cooker. When cooking the pumpkin down I added apple cider to add acid to it. It canned just fine.

  23. Marisa you said you were going to try apple and pumpkin butter did it work? What if you added lemon juice or apple cider vinegar? I really want to try and can some. How can we tell if the food is contaminated is there a test kit?

  24. If the density is the problem, why can’t you puree everything, add a ton of water to the recipe, cook it up to the required temperature in a pressure cooker, simmer or boil off the excess water, and then can what’s left when it returns to the density you want? I’m not an experienced canner, I’m just theorizing. Would this result in something safer even if it’s a little unorthodox? Or would it just ruin the recipe?

    • It’s the density once in the jar that’s the issue. So even though you cooked it to the proper temperature, the goal is to absolutely ensure that no botulism spores exist inside the jar at the time of canning. So you still need the heat of the pressure canner to be able to penetrate to the center of the jar, which brings us back to the density issue.

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